John Dewey, 1859-1952

The most well-known American philosopher in the first half of the twentieth century, John DeweyW shaped the philosophy of pragmatism as a means of providing a philosophical justification for democratic theory. His signature on the Humanist Manifesto of 1933 helped put him at the intellectual center of the movement. His understanding of religion and science would deeply influence the group until positivism took hold later in the century.